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Agroforestry is any sustainable land-use system that maintains or increases total yields by combining food crops (annuals) with tree crops (perennials) and/or livestock on the same unit of land, either alternately or at the same time, using management practices that suit the social and cultural characteristics of the local people and the economic and eco­logical conditions of the area.

Types Of Agroforestry Systems

I) Agrisilvicultural Systems

In this system, agricultural crops are intercropped with tree crops in the interspace between the trees. Under this system agricultural crops can be grown upto two years under protective irrigated condition and under rainfed farming upto four years. The crops can be grown profitably upto the above said period beyond which it is uneconomical to grow grain crops. However fodder crops, shade loving crops and shallow rooted crops can be grown economically. Wider spacing is adopted without sacrificing tree population for easy cultural operation and to get more sunlight to the intercrop. Performance of the tree crops is better in this system when compared to monoculture.

II) Silvopastoral Systems

The production of woody plants combined with pasture is referred to Silvipasture system. The trees and shrubs may be used primarily to produce fodder for livestock or they may be grown for timber, fuelwood, fruit or to improve the soil. This system is classified in to three categories

a) Protein bank:

In this Silvipastoral system, various multipurpose trees (protein rich trees) are planted in or around farmlands and range lands for cut and carry fodder production to meet the feed requirement of livestock during the fodder deficit period in winter. Example: Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania grandiflora

b) Livefence of fodder trees and hedges:

In this system, various fodder trees and hedges are planted as live fence to protect the property from stray animals or other biotic influences. Example: Gliricidia sepium, Sesbania grandiflora, Erythrina sp, Acacia sp.

c) Trees and shrubs on pasture:

In this system, various tree and shrub species are scattered irregularly or arranged according to some systemic pattern to supplement forage production. Example: Acacia nilotica, Acacia leucophloea ,Tamarindus indica, Azadirachta indica.

III) Agrosilvopastoral Systems

The production of woody perennials combined with annuals and pastures is referred Agrisilvopastural system. This system is grouped into two categories.

  • Home gardens
  • Woody hedgerows for browse, mulch, green manure and soil conservation

Benefits Of Agroforestry System

A) Environmental benefits
  • Reduction of pressure on natural forests.
  • More efficient recycling of nutrients by deep rooted trees on the site
  • Better protection of ecological systems
  • Reduction of surface run-off, nutrient leaching and soil erosion through impeding effect of tree roots and stems on these processes
  • Improvement of microclimate, such as lowering of soil surface temperature and reduction of evaporation of soil moisture through a combination of mulching and shading
  • Increment in soil nutrients through addition and decomposition of litterfall.
  • Improvement of soil structure through the constant addition of organic matter from decomposed litter.
B) Economic benefits
  • Increment in an outputs of food, fuel wood , fodder, fertiliser and timber;
  • Reduction in incidence of total crop failure, which is common to single cropping or monoculture systems
  • Increase in levels of farm income due to improved and sustained productivity
C) Social benefits
  • Improvement in rural living standards from sustained employ¬≠ment and higher income
  • Improvement in nutrition and health due to increased quality and diversity of food outputs
  • Stabilization and improvement of communities through elimination of the need to shift sites of farm activities.

Aromatic Species

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Eucalyptus citriodora Lemon scented gum Seeds Tree
Cymbopogon winterianus Citronella slips Grass
Cymbopogon flexuosus Lemon grass slips Grass
Cymbopogon martini Palmarosa Seeds Grass
Pogostemon cablin Patchouli Plants Scrub
Santalum album Sandal/chandan Seeds Tree
Eucalyptus blue gum Blue gum Seeds Tree

Avenue Trees

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Acacia auriculiformis Acacia Seeds Medium tree
Acacia springvale Springvale Seeds Medium tree
Azadirachta indica Neem Seeds Big tree
Melia dubia Forest neem Seeds Medium tree
Casurina equisetifolia Horse tail palm Seeds Medium tree
Dalbargia sissoo sissoo Seeds Medium tree
Eucalyptus commandalisis White niligiri Seeds Medium tree
Eucalyptus citriodora Lemon scented gum Seeds Big tree
Grevillia robusta Silver oak Seeds Medium tree
Mimusops elengi Bullet wood Seeds Medium tree
Polyalthia longifolia Ashoka Seeds Medium tree
Pterocarpus marsupium Bijasal Seeds Big tree
Pterocarpus santalinus Red sanders Seeds Medium tree
Sapindus emarginatus Soap nut Seeds small tree
Sterculia alata Budda nut Seeds Big tree
Tamarindus indica Tamarind Seeds Big tree
Terminalia arjuna Arjuna Seeds Medium tree
Terminalia chebula Harra Seeds Medium tree
Terminalia bellarica Bahera Seeds small tree
Terminalia catapa indian almond/jungli badam Seeds small tree
Simaruba gluca Simaruba Seeds Medium tree
Madhuca indica Mahuva Seeds Big tree
Pongamia pinneta Karanj Seeds Medium tree
Ficus religiosa Peepal Seeds Big tree
Ficus racemosa Cluster Fig Tree Seeds Big tree
Ficus benghalensis Banyan Seeds Big tree
Morus alba Mulberry Cutting small tree
Bixa orellana Annatto Seeds small tree
Lawsonia inermis Henna Seeds small tree
Gliricidia Gliricidia Seeds small tree
Thesposia populina porus peepal/peepal Seeds Medium tree
Muntingia calabura Japanease cherry fruits small tree
Parkia biglandulosa Tennis ball tree Seeds Medium tree
Albizia richardiana Elephent trees Seeds Medium tree
Adenanthera pavonina Coral wood Seeds Medium tree

Forest Planting Species

Botanical name Common name Plant type
Acacia Nilotica Babul Thorny tree
Acacia auriculiformis Bengali Babul Timber Pulp
Acacia mangium Australian rose wood Timber Pulp
Acacia springvale Springvale Timber/Pulp
Acacia crassicarpa Thick-podded Salwood Timber,
Acacia holosericea Strap Wattle Fire wood
Acacia Leucophloea White barked acacia Thorny tree
Acacia Catechu Catechu Thorny tree
Acacia concinna sikakai Creeper
Acacia suma Suma/Mugli Thorny tree
Acacia Planifrons Umbrella babul Thorny tree
Acacia lenticularis iron wood babul Thorny tree
Acacia farnesiana Needle Bush Thorny shrub
Acrocarpus fraxanifolis Pink cidar Timber shade
Adina cordifolia Big Teak Timber
Adenanthera pavonina Coral wood Small Tree
Aegle Marmelus Bilva Fruiting tree
Ailanthus excelsa Maharukh Timber/Pulp
Albizia lebbeck Siris
Albizia Richardiana Elephant tree shade/pulp
Albizia odoratissima Black siris Timber
Anacardium occidentale Ceshew nut Fruiting tree
Annona squamosa Custard apple Fruiting shrub
Artocarpus heterophyllus Jack fruit Fruiting tree
Azadirachta indica Neem Fruit/timber tree
Bambusa arundinacea Big bamboo Bamboo Tree
Bauhinia purpurea Kachnar Flowering Tree
Bombax ceiba Silk cotton tree Cotton Tree
Butea monosperma Flame of the forest Flowering Tree
Cassia fistula Amlatus Medicinal tree
Cassia siamia iron wood Fire wood
Cassia javanica java cassia Flowering Tree
Cassia nodosa Pink cassia Flowering Tree
Cassia grandis Horse cassia Flowering Tree
Casuarina equisetifolia Horse tail oak Pole Pulp tree
Dalbergia latifolia Rose wood Timber tree
Dalbergia sissoo Sisso Timber tree
Delonix regia Gul mohar Flowering Tree
Dendrocalamus strictus Small bamboo Clumps
Emblica officinalis Amla Fruiting tree
Eucalyptus hybrid Nilgiri Pulp wood tree
Eucalyptus citriodora Lemon scented gum Aromatic tree
Eucalyptus pellita Pilleta Pulp wood tree
Eucalyptus camaldulensis White nilgiri Pulp wood tree
Eucalyptus grandis Grandis Pulp wood tree
Eucalyptus urograndis Urograndis Pulp wood tree
Feronia limonea Wood apple Fruiting tree
Ficus benghalensis Banyan tree Avenue Tree
Ficus religiosa Peepal Avenue Tree
Ficus racemosa Cluster Fig Tree Avenue Tree
Gliricidea Maculate Gliricidea Fodder tree
Gmelina arborea Siwan/ghamar Timber tree
Grevillea robusta Silver oak Shade tree
Holoptelea integrifolia india elm tree Avenue Tree
Jacaranda mimosifolia Jakaranda Flowering Tree
Lagerstroemia speciosa pride of india Flowering Tree
Leucaena leucocephala Subabul Pulp wood tree
Madhuca longifolia Mahuva Oil seeds tree
Mangifera indica Mango Fruiting tree
Melia azedarach Persian lilac Fodder tree
Melia dubia Forest neem Ply wood tree
Mimusops elengi Bullet wood Fruiting tree
Moringa oleifera Drumstick Fruit tree
Parkinsonia aculeata Jerusalam thorn Thorny tree
Parkia biglandulosa Badminton ball tree Avenue Tree
peltophorum pterocarpum Yellow gulmohar Flowering Tree
Pithecellobium dulce jungli julobi Thorny tree
Pongamia pinnata Karanja Oil seeds tree
Prosopis juliflora Mesqute Thorny plant
Pterocarpus Marsupium Bijasal Timber tree
Pterocarpus santalinus Red sander Commercial tree
Samanea saman Rain tree Avenue Tree
Santalum album Sandal/Chandan Aromatic tree
sapindus emarginatus soap nut Fruiting tree
Spathodea campanulata African tulip tree Flowering Tree
Sterculia alata Budda nut Avenue Tree
Swietenia Mahogani Mahagony Timber tree
Tamarindus indica Temarind/imli Fruiting tree
Tectona grandis Teak/Sagvan Timber
Terminalia alata Laurel Timber tree
Terminalia Arjuna Arjun Fruiting tree
Terminalia bellirica Bahera Fruiting tree
Terminalia catappa indian almond Fruiting tree
Terminalia chebula Harra Fruiting tree
Thespesia populnea Indian tulip Timber tree
Ziziphus mauritiana Ber Fruiting tree

Flowering Trees

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Botanical name Common name Color of the flowers Tree types
Jacaranda mimosifolia Jakaranda Violet Small trees
Delonix regia Gulmohar Red Small trees
Bauhinia purpurea Geranium trees Deep rose Small trees
Bombax ceiba Silk cotton tree/semul Crimson Big trees
Butea monosperma Flame of the forest saffon Small trees
Cassia fistula Amaltas Yellow Shrub
Cassia siamia iron wood Yellow Medium trees
Peltophorum pterocarpum Yellow gulmohar Yellow Medium trees
Samanea saman Rain tree Pinkish white Big trees
Lagerstroemia speciosa Pride of india Pink Small trees
Wrightia tinctoria Dhoodi white Shrub
pterospermum acerifolium Kanak champa white Small trees
Tabebuia argentea Tree of gold Yellow Small trees
Tabebuia rosea Rose puri Rose Medium trees
Tabebuia avellanedae pink trumpet tree pink Small trees
Cassia grandis Horse cassia pink with white Medium trees
Cassia javanica java cassia pink with white Medium trees
Tecoma stans Yellow bells Yellow Shrub
Millettia peguensis jewels on a string purple tree
Spathodea campanulata African tulip tree Orange tree
Colvillea racemosa Colville's glory Orange red tree
Michelia champaca Champ yellow/white tree


Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Lucerne Alfa alfa Seeds Small plants
Vigna catjang Cowpea Seeds Creeper
Cenchrus ciliaris Seeds Grass
Pennisetum pedicellatum deenanath grass Seeds Grass
M.P.chary Seeds Small plants
Lucerne Seeds Grass
Cyamopsis tetragonoloba Guar or cluster bean Seeds Creeper
Maize African tall Seeds Small plants
Sorgham Seeds Small plants
Cynodon dactylon Doop grass Seeds Grass
Stylo hamata Hamata Seeds Grass
Stylo scabra Scabra Seeds Small plants
Sesbania grandiflora Agasti Seeds Small plants
Leucaena leococephala Subabul Seeds Tree
Sweet suddan grass SSG Seeds Grass
Gliricidia maculata Gliricidia Seeds Tree
Melia azadirachta Pursian Lilliac Seeds Tree


Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Santalum album Sandal/chandan Seeds Oil/Antique
Melia dubia Wild neem Clones Ply wood
Swietenia mahagoni Mahagony Seeds Timber/Furniture
Pterocarpus santalinus Red sanders seeds/stumps Furniture/Medicinal
Dalbergia latifolia Rose wood Seeds Timber/Furniture
Tectona grandis Teak/sagwan seeds/stumps Timber/Furniture
Acacia springvale New teak Seeds Timber/Furniture
Gmelina arborea Sawan/Gamar Seeds Furniture/Antiques

Bio Fuel

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Pongamia pinneta Karanj Seeds Medium size tree
Madhuca longifolia Mahuva Seeds Big tree
Jatropha carcus Jatropha Seeds/cutting Shrub
Simaruba gluca Simaruba Seeds/graft Medium size tree
Azadirachta indica Neem seeds Big tree
Bombax ceiba Semul seeds Big tree


Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Bambusa arundinacea Big bamboo Seeds/Rhizomes 40-60 feet height
Dendracalamus strictus Small/Solid bamboo Seeds/Rhizomes 25-30 feet height

Fruiting Tree Species

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Annona Squomosa Custurd Apple/seetphal Seeds/Graft Shrub
Emblica officinal Amla Seeds/Graft Small tree
Mangifera indica Mango Shell/Graft Tree
Anacardium occidentale Cashew Fruit/Graft Small tree
Moringa oleifera Drumstick seeds Shrub
Syzygium cumini Jamun Seeds/Graft tree
Feronum lemonia Wood Apple Seeds/Graft Tree
Tamarindus indica Temadind/Imli Seeds/Graft Tree
Psidium guava Guava Seeds/Graft Shrub
Sapindus emarginatus Soap nut Seeds Small tree
Zizyphus mauritiana Ber seeds Shrub
Acharas zapota Sapota Graft Shrub
Aegle marmelos Bilva Seeds Tree
Terminalia bellirica Bahera Seeds Tree
Terminalia cattapa indian almond/jungli badam fruits Small tree
Terminalia chebula Harra Seeds Tree
Muntingia calabura Japanese cherry Fruits Shrub
Artocarpus integra Jack fruits Seeds Tree
Carica Papaya Papaya Seeds Shrub
Citrus aurantifolia Lemon Seeds/Graft Shrub
Areca nut Areca/beatal nut Seeds/Plant Small tree
Pomegranate Anaar Graft small plant

Green Manure

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Sesbenia grengiflora Agasti Seeds Tree
Sesbenia egyptica Seeds Small tree
sesbenia aculata Daincha Seeds Small tree
Crotoleria Juncia Sunhemp Seeds Small tree
Crotoleria Strighta Forest sunhemp Seeds Small tree
Gliricidia sepium Gliricidia Seeds/cutting Tree
Indigofera tinctorea Blue seeds Tree
Mimosa pudica Touch me not Seeds/plants Small tree

Live Fencing Species

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Agave sisalana Agave sisal Suckers More
Agave Americana Agave Americana Suckers Single thorn
Acacia consinna Sikakai Seeds Tree
Prosophis juliflora Mesquite Seeds More Dendracalamus
Strictus Small bamboo Rhizomes/Plant No
Bambusa Bamboo Big bamboo Rhizomes/Plant Moderate
Pithecellobium dulce Madras thorn Seeds Moderate
Parkinsonia aculata Jerusalem thorn Seeds More Acacia
Farnanciana Scented babul Seeds Thick
Acacia nilotica Babul Seeds Moderate
Jatropha carcus Jatropha Seeds No
Gliricidia sepum Gliricidia Seeds No

Medicinal Plants

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Aloe vera Aloe Sucker Leaves
Withania somnifera dunal Ashwagandha Seeds Root/Leaves
Coleus Barbatus Coleus Cutting Roots
Plantago ovata Isabgol Seeds Seeds
Andrographis paniculata Kalmegh Seeds whole plants
Catharanthus roseus Pariwinkle Seeds whole plants
Piper longum Long pepper Cutting spike
Rauvolfia serpentine Sapagandha Seeds Roots
Cassia angustifolia Senna seeds Leaves/Flower bud
Decalepis hamiltoni Nannari Root cutting Root
Tinospora cordifolia Amrata Cutting stem/Leaves
Bixa orellana Annatto Seeds Seeds
Lawsonia inermis Henna Seeds Leaves
Asparagus racemosus Satavari Root/seeds Root
Cassia fistula Amaltas Seeds fruit/bark
Gymnema sylvestre Madhunasini Cutting Leaves
Indigofera tinctotia Blue Seeds Leaves
Tribulus terrestris Gokuru Fruits whole plants
Stevia Herbal sugar Cutting Leaves

Pulp Wood

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Eucalyptus hybrid Nilgiri Seeds 5 Years
Eucalyptus commandalisis White nilgiri Seeds 5 Years
Eucalyptus tetricomis Tetricomis Seeds 5 Years
Acacia auriculiformis Acacia Seeds 6 Year
Acacia springvale Springvale Seeds 6 Years
Leucaena leucocephala Subabul Seeds 3 Years
Samanea saman Rain tree Seeds 4 Years
Casurina euquesti folia saru/horsetail palm Seeds 4 Years
Bambusa arundinesia Big Bamboo seeds/rhizomes 4 Years
Eucalyptus pilleta Pilleta Seeds 4 Years
Sesbenia grandiflora Avisa Seeds 3 Years

Shade Trees

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Acacia springvale New teak Seeds Moderate
Erythrina indica Indian coral trees Seeds/cutting Moderate
Acrocarpus flaxanifolius Pink cedar seeds Moderate
Albizzia richardiana Elephant tree seeds Moderate
Albizzia amara Safed siris Seeds Moderate
Grevillia robusta Silver oak Seeds Moderate
Muntingia calabura Japanese cherry Fruits Thick
Samania Saman Rain tree Seeds Thick
Melia dubia Forest neem Seeds/clones Moderate
Gliricidia sepium Gliricidia seeds/cutting Moderate

Soil Erosion Control

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Agave sisalana Agave sisal Suckers Shrub and thorn
Agave Americana Agave Americana Suckers shrub single thorn
Stylo Hameta Hameta Seeds Grass
stylo scabra Scabra Seeds Small plant
Bambusa arundinesia Big bamboo seeds/Rhizomes 50-60 feet height
Dendracalamus strictus small/soiled bamboo seeds/Rhizomes 30-40 feet height
Casurina equestifolia Horse tail palm/saru seeds Medium tree

Timber Trees

Botanical name Common name Propagation Plant type
Tectona grandis Teak/sagwan Seeds/stump 15-20 years
Swetenia mahagony Mahagony Seeds 15 years
Acacia springvale New teak Seeds 12 years
Santalum album Sandal/chandan seeds 15 years
Dalbergia latifolia indian rose wood seed/stump 20 years
Gmelina arboria Sawan/white teak seeds 10 years
Acacia Mangium Australian teak seeds 12 years
Acacia cracicarpa Australian rose wood seeds 12 years
Albizzia odertissma Red Seasam seeds 15 years
Acrocarpus fraxanifolis pink cedar seeds 15 years
Acacia catechu Katachu Seeds 15 years
Pterocarpus marsupium Bijasal seeds 15 years
pterocarpus santalinus Red sander seeds/stump 15 years
Adina cardifolia Big teak seeds 20 years
Melia Dubia Forest name seeds 6-7 years